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驻美大使崔天凯:老以为中国占了美国便宜,这是谬见(中英文)

作者:   来源:人大重阳微信公号  已有 252人浏览 字体放大  字体缩小
  编者按:当地时间1月18日上午,由卡特中心、中国人民对外友好协会和中国社科院主办,中国人民大学重阳金融研究院等多家智库联合协办的中美关系高层研讨会在美国亚特兰大卡特中心召开。中国驻美大使崔天凯出席当天上午的讨论会并发表演讲。人大重阳将演讲内容中英文独家刊发如下:

  尊敬的吉米⋅卡特总统,
  尊敬的李小林女士,
  女士们,先生们,
  首先,请允许我向卡特总统、卡特中心、中国人民对外友好协会和中国社科院美国研究所表达诚挚谢意,感谢你们为纪念中美建交40周年国际研讨会所做努力。同时,我也要感谢所有来宾为中美关系发展做出重要贡献。
  40年前,中国和美国建立外交关系。几乎是同一时期,中国开启了改革开放进程。过去40年里,两国和两国关系都实现了跨越式发展,为两国人民乃至世界各国人民带来巨大福利。正如卡特总统近日在《华盛顿邮报》上撰文指出,“40年的中美关系充分证明,拥有不同历史、文化和政治体制的国家能够为了更大福祉而携手共进。
  孔子有句名言,“四十而不惑。”然而,在我们纪念40周年时,也必须看到对中美关系仍存在一些非理性质疑和谬见。
  一个错误观点认为,美国过去四十年的对华政策失败了,因为中国没有复制美国的政治和经济体制模式。很明显,持这种观点的人完全不了解两国为何建交,不是为了以一国模式重塑另一国,不是为了消除两国之间所有不同。至少,中国从未有过任何改造美国的想法,而迄今为止,也没有任何一届美国政府将改变中国社会体制、发展道路或意识形态正式作为其政策目标。40年前,是共同利益和责任让我们走到一起;今天,也依然是共同利益和责任让中美关系继续向前拓展。
  另一种谬见是,中国一直在占美国的便宜。事实上,中美关系一直都是互利共赢的。例如,中美贸易总额从1979年的不到25亿美元增长至去年的6335亿美元。据中国美国商会最新统计,其74%的成员企业计划扩大在华投资。显然,我认为,如果在中国无利可图,没有哪个理智的美国商人会继续在中国做生意;而如果只有一方占另一方便宜,中美经贸关系也不可能发展至今天的深度和广度。
  如果这还不足为证,请看下面这些数字:美国GDP从40年前的2.63万亿美元剧增至2017年的19.36万亿美元,而2017年中国的GDP是12.2万亿美元。也就是说,美国这些年经济发展的增量比中国一年的GDP总量还要多。没有证据表明美国在中美关系中是输家,我们之间完全是互利共赢。
  事实上,不仅我们两国,整个亚太地区和全世界都从中美关系中受益良多。过去40年来,亚太地区更加稳定,和平前景更加光明,并且成为世界经济增长的引擎。在中美两国通力合作下,国际社会克服了2008年国际金融危机,并在推进全球经济治理方面取得进步。
  事实证明,合作符合两国利益,合作是双方最好的选择。因此,我们不应被谬见所误导,我们需要的是客观评价过去,清醒认识现在,坚定面向未来。
  女士们,先生们,
  世界正在经历百年未有之大变局。两国人民和世界各国人民期待我们为人类共同利益做出更大贡献,现在比以往任何时候都更需中美携手共进。鉴此,我们有必要为未来40年甚至更长远时期的中美关系树立清晰框架。在去年12月1日阿根廷中美元首会晤上,习近平主席和特朗普总统达成共识,要共同推进以协调、合作和稳定为基调的中美关系。这为两国关系的未来发展指明了方向。
  —我们要加强协调,增进互信,避免战略误判。
  两国关系和两国人民的交往在过去40年里取得长足发展。但两国仍亟需加强相互了解,尤其是对彼此战略意图的了解。误解误读造成的误判可能会带来前所未有的严重后果。
  由于中国被视为“新兴大国”,而美国则是与之相对的“守成大国”,很多误解及毫无根据的忧虑由此产生。这很大程度上源于对中国历史和文化缺乏了解。如果人们对中华文明过去几千年以及近来两个世纪的历史有更多了解,如果人们对中华人民共和国建国70年和改革开放40年来的奋斗目标有更多了解,他们就能更好体会为什么中国要推进现代化,实现中华民族的伟大复兴,为什么中国坚信改革开放是取得成功的关键,以及为什么中国致力于自身和平发展,并将与世界各国一道共同构建人类命运共同体。
  双方之间进行更有效的沟通和协调,就能够加强相互理解和信任。做到这一点,误判的可能性就将大大降低。当然,一些自封的战略家可能仍然拒绝面对现实,他们可能仍然要向世界兜售各种阴谋论,这也许是因为他们自己就是真正的阴谋家。
  —我们要加强合作,扩大共同利益,避免恶性争斗。
  在肯定过去40年成就的同时,我们也要看到,双方合作还有很长的路要走,还有很大潜力可挖。我们的合作依然会存在问题,但解决问题的最好方式是进一步加强合作,而非断绝来往,搞所谓的“脱钩”。目前,双方经贸团队正按照两国元首达成的共识,加紧磋商,我们期待早日听到他们的好消息。
  近来,人们审视中美关系时常常谈及“竞争”这一概念。在中文和英文中,“竞争”本来不是一个坏词,但现在有人对其进行了过度解读。他们认为任何竞争都是有战略性的,只能导致零和结果,他们认为竞争者从概念上讲就是对手、敌手,任何竞争都有预定赢家,而赢家则要通吃。这是对公平竞争精神的严重扭曲,在中美关系中应当坚决摒弃。
  —我们要相互尊重,妥处分歧,保持中美关系稳定。
  我们应尊重彼此自主选择的社会体制和发展道路,尊重对方核心利益和关切。其中,台湾问题是中美关系中最重要、最敏感的问题。一个中国政策和中美三个联合公报的基本原则依然是两国关系的政治基础。在《告台湾同胞书》发表40周年纪念会上的重要讲话中,习近平主席重申了中国实现国家统一、反对任何外来干涉的坚定决心。毫无疑问,中美关系未来能否保持稳定将取决于这条红线能否得到遵守。
  维护中美关系稳定,还要求我们在处理这一全面、复杂的双边关系时保持定力。我们任何时候都不能迷失实现世界和平与繁荣这一更大目标,都应以两国人民长远利益为重,都要避免受到狭隘的“政治正确”干扰。崇高的事业从来不靠煽动和散布仇恨来推进,大国的外交政策从来不应该由恐惧和怀疑来驱动。历史已经证明,任何类似企图最终都不可能得逞。
  女士们,先生们,
  改革开放初期,邓小平先生提出要解放思想,实事求是。我认为,他的号召也适用于今天的中美关系。我们又一次站在了历史的十字路口,肩上挑着的是实现中美关系健康稳定发展的重任。如果我们将过去40年比作一场考试,我们已经向两国人民和世界交出了高分答卷。现在,面对中美关系未来发展的又一次考试,我们更需解放思想,实事求是,让我们共同努力,争取在考试中再创佳绩!
  谢谢大家!

  Remarks by Ambassador Cui Tiankai at the International Symposium to Commemorate the 40thAnniversary ofEstablishment of China-US Diplomatic Relations
  Atlanta, January 18, 2019
  President Jimmy Carter,
  Madam Li Xiaolin,
  Ladies and gentlemen,
  Let me start by thanking President Carter, the Carter Center, the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and the Institute of American Studies of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, for organizing this Symposium to commemorate the 40th anniversary of China-US diplomatic relations. My sincere thanks also go to all participants here for your precious contribution to the development of the relations.
  Forty years ago, China and the US established diplomatic ties. Almost in the same period, China launched its reform and opening-up. Over the past 40 years, both countries and our relations have developed by leaps and bounds, delivering huge benefits to the people of our two countries and the whole world. Just as President Carter wrote in his recent article in the Washington Post: “The 40th anniversary of this relationship is a testament to the ability of countries with different histories, cultures and political systems to work together for the greater good. ”
  As Confucius famously said and is quoted on many occasions, “At forty I had no doubts”. However, while we are commemorating the 40th anniversary, we cannot but notice some irrational doubts and myths about our relations.
  One myth claims that the US policy toward China in the last forty years has failed, as China has not copied the American model in its political and economic systems. Obviously, people holding this view have no idea why we established diplomatic relations in the first place. It is not to remodel one side after the other; it is not to remove all distinctions between our two countries. At least China never has the slightest idea of transforming the US, and not a single US administration so far has formally taken changing China’s social system, development path or ideology as its official policy. Forty years ago it was our common interests and responsibilities that brought us together, and it is still the same that have enabled our relationship to continue to grow and expand today.
  Another myth is that China has been taking advantage of the US. In fact, China-US relations have always been mutually beneficial. Our trade volume, for instance, has grown from less than 2.5 billion dollars in 1979 to 633.5billion dollars last year. According to the latest report by AmCham China, 74% of its member companies plan to expand their investment in China. I don’t think any sensible American businessmen will keep their presence in China if there is nothing for them to gain. And I don’t think our business relations could have developed to such depths and breadths with only one side ripping off the other.
  If this is not enough, please look at these figures: America’s GDP soared from 2.63 trillion dollars 40 years ago to 19.36 trillion dollars in 2017, while China’s GDP in 2017 was 12.2 trillion dollars. It means that the US economy has grown over the years by a greater increment than the total annual GDP of China. There is no evidence that the US is on the losing side in its relations with China; what we have is nothing but a win-win scenario.
  In fact, not only our two countries, but the entire region and the world have benefited enormously from our ties. Over the past 40 years, the Asia-Pacific has enjoyed greater stability and better prospects for peace and is now a powerhouse of the world economic growth. Largely thanks to the cooperation of our two countries, the international community has not only overcome the 2008 international financial crisis, but also made good progress in improving global economic governance.
  Facts have proved that cooperation is in the interests of both countries. We have no better option than cooperation. Therefore, we should not be misled by those ill-founded myths. What we need is an objective perspective of where we were from, a keen idea of where we stand and a clear faith in where we are going.
  Ladies and gentlemen,
  The world is undergoing tremendous changes. The people of our two countries and the whole world are looking to us to do more for the shared interests of mankind, and it has never been so important for China and the US to work together. In light of this, it is necessary for us to foster a clear framework for our relations of the next 40 years or even longer. At their meeting in Argentina on December 1st last year, President Xi Jinping and President Donald Trump agreed to pursue a China-US relationship based on coordination, cooperation and stability. This has charted the course for the future development of our relations.
  —We need to strengthen coordination so as to enhance mutual trust and avoid strategic miscalculations.
  Ties between our two countries and two peoples have grown extensively over the last four decades. Yet there is still pressing need for better mutual understanding between us, especially with regard to strategic intentions. And the consequences of miscalculations resulting from misunderstanding and misinterpretation could be much more serious than ever before.
  As China is seen as a “rising power” vis-a-vis the United States as the established power, there is clearly more misunderstanding and thus unfounded worries about China. Much of this is due to the lack of understanding of China’s history and culture. If people learn more about the history of the Chinese civilization, both over thousands of years and in the last two centuries, if they learn more about what the People’s Republic has striven for, in the 40 years of reform and opening-up as well as in the entire period of 70 years since its founding, they will have a much better understanding of why China is seeking modernization and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, why China believes that the key to its success is reform and opening-up and why China is committed to peaceful development of itself and joint efforts with other countries for a community of nations with a shared future.
  Such understanding and trust can be achieved through more effective communication and coordination. When this is done, the possibilities of miscalculation will be greatly reduced. Of course some self-claimed strategists may still refuse to face the realities. They may still try to sell conspiracy theories of various kinds to the world, perhaps because they themselves are true conspirators.
  —We need to promote cooperation so as to expand common interests and avoid vicious rivalry.
  Having applauded what we have achieved over the past four decades, we need to recognize that we still have a long way to go and so much potential to tap in our cooperation. We will continue to have problems between us. But the best solution to problems is through even closer cooperation rather than disengagement or the so-called “decoupling”. Now the two sides are working together on the economic and trade consultations in accordance with the agreement of the two presidents. We look forward to hearing goods news from them.
  The concept of competition is much talked about nowadays as people examine the relationship. Originally “competition” is not a bad word in both the Chinese and English languages. But now too much has been read into it. Some people believe that any competition is of strategic nature and can only be a zero-sum game, that competitors are by definition rivals and adversaries and that there should be a predetermined winner in competition and that winner shall take all. This is a gross distortion of the spirit of fair competition and should be firmly rejected in our relations.
  —We need to maintain stability through mutual respect and proper management of differences.
  We should respect each other’s independent choice of social system and developing path, and accommodate each other’s core interests and concerns. Among those, the Taiwan issue is the most important and sensitive issue for China-US relations. The one-China policy and the basic principles of the three China-US joint communiqués remain the political foundation for the bilateral relations. In his recent speech to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Message to Compatriots in Taiwan, President Xi Jinping reiterated China’s determination to achieve national reunification and the opposition to any external interference. Future stability of China-US relations will no doubt hinge on how this red line is upheld.
  Stability also requires steadiness in our handling of this comprehensive and complex relationship. We should never lose sight of the greater good of world peace and prosperity as our goals. We should always bear in mind the long-term interests of our two peoples. We should guard against the interference of narrowly-defined “political correctness”. No noble cause is ever served by inciting and spreading hatred. No great power’s foreign policy should be driven by fear and suspicion. Indeed, history has proven that no such attempt could succeed in the long-run.
  Ladies and gentlemen,
  In the early days of reform and opening-up, Mr. Deng Xiaoping called for“emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts”. I believe that his words can also apply to today’s China-US relations. Standing at another crossroads of history, we have upon us the heavy responsibility to ensure the sound and steady growth of our relations. If we compare the past 40 years to a test, then we have delivered impressive scores to both our peoples and the world. And now in this new test we need more than ever before to “emancipate the mind and seek truth from facts”. Let's work even harder to get another A+ on our score report.
  Thank you very much.
发布时间:2019年01月19日 来源时间:2019年01月19日
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